A commonplace book (or commonplaces) are a way to compile and store knowledge, usually by writing information into books, notebooks, card catalogs, or in more modern settings on one's own website.
Variations on this structural theme and the broader functional purposes and UI for aggregation/collecting, memory, learning, spaced repetition and similar patterns of knowledge related work include florilegium (books of flowers), anthologies, notebooks, miscellanies, pocket books, memoranda books, diaries, thesauruses ("treasure chests"), albums, scrapbooks, sylva rerum ("forests of things"), table books, vade mecum ("go with me"), waste books/sudelbücher, wikis, Zettelkasten, second brains, and digital gardens. This page can serve as an aggregation point for some of these related ideas until or unless it becomes worthwhile to separate these to delineate some of the different specific features they may have.
Split page question
- 1 Split page question
- 2 Brief History
- 3 The IndieWeb site as a Commonplace book
- 4 Examples
- 5 Platforms
- 6 Resources
- 7 Presentations
- 8 Books
- 9 Articles
- 10 Quotes
- 11 Sessions
- 12 See Also
Should this page be split, e.g. separating digital garden into its own page?
- +1 Tantek Çelik: reason: those using "digital garden" mean something in particular (see https://www.technologyreview.com/2020/09/03/1007716/digital-gardens-let-you-cultivate-your-own-little-bit-of-the-internet/ ) and seem to have no attachment or affinity with "commonplace book" (which is also quite an academic-sounding phrase/term). Even if they are conceptually similar, there is a very different attitude about them, and frankly even their metaphors are quite contrasting: dead tree vs. living plants — Tantek Çelik 14:11, 3 April 2021 (PDT)
The general concept of the commonplace book dates to the 1500's (though earlier precursors exist) as books became more common in society. Often due to the exorbitant cost of texts, readers would read and take notes from them into their commonplace books for future contemplation, providing direct quotations at a later date, or future reference prior to returning the book to its owner or passing it along to another. In some sense they became repositories for marginalia, highlights and notes one wanted to keep after the possession of a book was released. Commonplaces are frequently used by readers, writers, students, and scholars as an aid for remembering useful concepts or facts they have learned. Each commonplace book is unique to its creator's particular interests.
A variety of means and methods for compiling and organizing commonplaces have been devised over their hundreds of years of use. An early how-to book entitled A New Method of Making Common-Place-Books (1706) was written by philosopher John Locke in which he provided techniques for entering proverbs, quotations, ideas, and formulating speeches. Locke gave specific advice on how to arrange material by subject and category, using such key topics as love, politics, or religion.
The IndieWeb site as a Commonplace book
Given the prevalence and variety of post types on indieweb sites, their form and function often makes them de facto modern day commonplace books. Traditional commonplace books can often be found to have notes, the equivalent of bookmarks, reposts, articles, sketches or diagrams, reviews, recipes, lists of things read, and quotations which have direct correlates of indieweb post types.
The ability to tag, hyperlink, and search indieweb sites adds to their general usability in a way that traditional handwritten commonplace books lacked. Rarely, if ever, were commonplace books written in chronological order like journals or in reverse chronological order like blogs. More sophisticated search and archive pages (temporal or by category, tag, or topic) preclude this structural need now.
Commonplace books can be contrasted with other early written forms like diaries, journals, scrapbooks, and travelogues. Some of these functions are served by traditional blogs and personal websites while other post types along the lines of a "life log" or features of quantified self sites round out some of what may also make an indieweb site.
My website is adactio.com. I love my website. Even though it isn’t a physical thing, I think it might be my most prized possession.
It’s a place for me to think and a place for me to link.— Jeremy Keith in <A>
- Kevin Marks In many conversations with Kevin, one will begin to notice a pattern. He will often not only have previously thought about the topic at hand, but at one time or another he'll have written a blog post about it detailing those thoughts. He'll then do a quick search of his site(s) and proffer the link which not only contains an/the(?) "answer", but likely a lot of other additional thought and material above and beyond that one is likely to be interested in as well.
- Chris Aldrich I speficially state on my homepage "I use this website as my primary hub for online presence and communication and to some extent as my online commonplace book." The primary categories on my site give a bit of an index overview of some of the material I "collect" and in which I'm interested. I often post quotes, quick recipes, bookmarks of things I want to read in certain categories, and notes/highlights/marginalia from books I've read.
- Aaron Davis uses a secondary website entitled Read Write Collect to collect ideas, articles and thoughts which supports his primary website.
- Ian O'Byrne has a "Breadcrumbs" website on which he states: "This website is my digital commonplace book."
- Greg McVerry Captures all his annotations, bookmarks, and links to read articles from his blog. He also captures all class activity as a teacher.
- Ton Zijlstra calls his blog a commonplace book, in combination with Evernote, where the blog is a selection from Evernote/ thinking out loud space. He is looking to ditch evernote though.
- Neil Mather has a commonplace at https://commonplace.doubleloop.net/ that is just basic in emacs using orgmode and org-roam and publishing it as static HTML from org-mode; My holy grail would be something like TiddlyWiki but in emacs.
- Maxime Vaillancourt has a digital garden at https://maximevaillancourt.com/notes built with Jekyll and Netlify with an article about how to replicate it at https://maximevaillancourt.com/blog/setting-up-your-own-digital-garden-with-jekyll as well as a demo template at https://digital-garden-jekyll-template.netlify.app/ and an open source version on Github at https://github.com/maximevaillancourt/digital-garden-jekyll-template
- Add yourself here… (see this for more details)
Examples in the Wild
- Nelson Minar "A few folks have subscribed to this blog recently. Welcome! I am not writing for you. I am truly, only, writing work notes for myself. Stuff I learn and don’t want to forget."
This weblog is mainly for myself, used as a commonplace book in which I put ideas, quotations, facts, and citations that I might want to use later. That’s why the topics are diverse and often esoteric. I’m not trying to build an audence or get a lot of hits on a counter. My impression is that most visitors arrive because search engines have led them to here and I’m one of the few websites in the world that address some key word they’re interested in.
Since I am not writing for other people, especially (you will see the exceptions—things such as posts I also use as comments on other blogs, excerpts from letters or articles I have written or will write, and so forth), please do not think I am deliberately trying to offend someone or that I am cleverly pushing a hidden agenda. I’m not, simply because I don’t expect enough people to read this blog for such efforts to be worthwhile. Actually, I probably shouldn’t even fix my typos, and perhaps I’ll stop doing that. You’re weclome to read, and I’ll try to write well simply to avoid getting into bad habits, but I’ll not expend more effort than if I were writing this into a hidden fil in my PC.
- Chris Lott maintains a digital online commonplace book on a subdomain of his primary site at https://commonplace.fncll.org/. He also indicates he has two newsletters which he maintains as distributed commonplace books.
- Dr. Kay Oddone used her WordPress site to blog through her Ph.D. as an open and linked learning commonplace book.
- See also PhD and beyond: A WordPress adventure! Blogging my PhD on WordPress created new learning opportunities & expanded my professional digital identity. Now as a lecturer my blog includes an open learning space for students & other learners.
- 2019-02-26 Update: Creating and managing a lifestream as an Early Career Academic
Sharing ideas, in any form, is what the web empowers us to do. This is my online journal and commonplace book.
- Josh Sullivan has a TiddlyWiki hosted via GitHub Pages at https://github.com/joshcsullivan/joshcsullivan.github.io. He specifically calls it an online commonplace book in the subtitle of the site.
- Alan Smith, example of a "digital garden" which actually looks like a garden view from above with various plots of content
- George Mokray
All mistakes are mine. Hubevents Notes are raw notes from some of the events attended from the weekly Energy (and Other) Events around Cambridge, MA at http://hubevents.blogspot.com and books I've been reading. This is something of an electronic commonplace book.
- Jake Reeder began collecting his notes and annotations of Jacques Derrida using paper and pen, but transferred them into the cleverly named website Return to Cinder. The site ultimately grew to include additional writers and works (thus also making it a personal library of sorts. It ultimately became valuable enough to Reeder that he turned his site into a note taking platform available for other users called Databyss which appears to be a silo note taking platform that allows users to "Write and cite, research and re-search, and never get lost in Databyss. Welcome to your new word processor."
- Steve Brady titles his microblog: "Steve's Commonplace Book"
- http://gordonbrander.com/pattern/ an interesting example of a personal wiki with articles which backlink to each other with a rather elegant UI at the bottom of the page.
- https://garden.colingorrie.com/ describes itself as a digital garden
- digitized example: https://digitalbookhistory.com/colletscommonplace/ a digital version of Susanna Collet's Commonplace Book made with Digital Mappa
- https://kmaasrud.com/brain/ example of a personal site that indicates it is a public facing zettelkasten
- Thomas Foster, a public zettelkasten/memex on a personal site:
- Aggregations of multiple examples:
Examples of shared or small community-based commonplace books.
- Flancian is building https://anagora.org/index a "wiki-like experimental social network and distributed knowledge graph". Users with digital gardens, commonplace books, wikis, knowledge graphs, etc. can add them as sub-nodes on the larger wiki. For more details see: https://anagora.org/node/agora.
For user examples, potential design work, and awareness of history, below is a list of physical (non-digital) commonplace books. Some of these were originally handwritten on paper, in codices, or in notebooks, but are available as printed and purchasable editions. Some may have been digitized and are now available online.
- Marcus Aurelius (121-180 CE)' Meditations began as a private collection of notes, thoughts, and quotations.
- The Loci communes (Commonplaces) or Capita theologica (Theological Chapters) or Kitāb al-rawḍa (Book of the Garden) is a Byzantine Greek florilegium containing a mix of Judeo-Christian and pagan selections. It was originally compiled in the late 9th or early 10th century and subsequently enlarged around the year 1000. See also https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Loci_communes_(Pseudo-Maximus)
- Francis Bacon (1561-1626)
- Ben Jonson (1572-1637)
- John Milton (1608-1674) (Digital copy at the British Library)
- John Locke (1632-1704) (Digital copy from Harvard Library)
- Isaac Newton (1643-1727) developed the calculus in a waste book, a digital copy of which can be found in the Cambridge library.
- James Boswell (1740-1785)
- Georg Christoph Lichtenberg (1742-1799) kept an extensive series of waste books, which he called sudelbücher, throughout his life. Published after his death, these notebooks were admired by Tolstoy, Einstein, and Andre Breton, and Nietzsche and Wittgenstein acknowledged them as a significant inspiration for their own works. Excerpts of them have been published in English translation.
- Jean Paul (1763-1825), a German romantic novelist, kept an early version of a Zettelkasten made of slips of paper in bound books.
"In the event of a fire, the black-bound excerpts are to be saved first."
—instructions from Jean Paul to his wife before setting off on a trip in 1812 
- Charles Darwin (1809-1882) Steven Johnson describes it on YouTube
- E. M. Forester (1879-1970)
- Virginia Woolf (1882-1941)
- H.P. Lovecraft (1890-1937)
- Sir Alec Guiness (1914-2000)
- Niklas Luhmann (1927-1998), a German sociologist and philosopher, was famous for his use of the Zettelkasten (or "slip box") note-taking method. He created a zettelkasten of 90,000+ index cards, and credited it with making his prolific writing possible. His collection was digitized and made available online in 2019.
- W. Ross Ashby (1903-1972) started a commonplace book in a journal in May 1928 as a medical student. He kept it for 44 years until his death at which point it occupied 25 volumes comprising 7,189 pages and was indexed with 1,600 index cards. The British Library created a digital archive of his commonplace which has been published online with extensive cross linking based on his original index. http://www.rossashby.info/index.html
Collections of Examples
- Harvard Views of Reading, Readership, and Reading History | Commonplace Book with many examples including:
- personally annotated books owned by John Keats, Herman Melville, Hester Lynch Piozzi, and others
- William Wordsworth's private library catalog
- commonplace books used by Joseph Conrad, Washington Irving, Victor Hugo, and more
- The internet itself could be though of as a massive living and ever-growing commonplace book which can be digitally queried to provide the answers to nearly every conceivable question.
Below are some various non-silo or open source platforms which might be used for commonplace books, some specific examples of these in use may appear in IndieWeb examples above.
- Foam, an open source second brain/Zettelkasten building tool for VS Code with graph visualisations
- logseq is a privacy-first, open-source platform for knowledge sharing and management. Code on GitHub.
- https://anagora.org/, an open source community-based digital garden project
- trilium hierarchical note taking application
- Quartz, https://quartz.jzhao.xyz/, a Hugo, GitHub, and Obsidian-based set up for self-hosting one's online digital garden
- Cardigan Bay - the wiki engine created to run ThoughtStorms wiki is a personal wiki-like notebook application. It's open-source; written in Clojure and distributed as a JAR file that will run on Windows, Linux (and probably Mac); has automatic backlinks; an embeddable Clojure interpreter (so you can embed code in pages); full text search; a bookmarklet to quickly bookmark web-pages into it; an embeddable RSS feed-reader; a RecentChanges & RecentChanges RSS feed; and exports pages as flat HTML files that can be hosted on any web-server. See https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=H7_THeK9EBw for a quick overview.
- Obsidian, https://obsidian.md/ - multiplatform app for plain text markdown files
- While not open sourced in terms of code base, Obsidian can be downloaded and used for free. It runs on many platforms (a mobile beta is in the works in Feb 2021), but saves data as text in markdown files to a location specified by the user where it can easily be migrated to any other platfoms or use cases. The user has full ownership and control of their data. At no time does Obsidian own or control the user's personal data.
- Obsidian Publish provides hosting with the option to use one's personal domain to publish one's notes to the web. This would allow one to use it as the basis for an IndieWeb site.
- Examples (using Obsidian Publish):
- “Obsidian+Github Pages” for digital gardeners? also includes links for other services and platforms as well as plugins, tools, and methods for creating SSG-based websites
- nvUltra - Searchable, portable, MultiMarkdown notes app, iOS only (private beta in Summer 2020)
Given the classical definition of a commonplace book and modern day use cases, some of the following silos could be used as or considered commonplaces. Their uses and user interfaces could be used as examples for designing or building one's own digital commonplace book.
- Roam Research
- Amplenote - to-do lists and note taking
- RemNote - note taking and spaced repetition
- Are.na - has the tagline "Tools for Thinking, Together"
- Highlighter.com is a silo-based personal knowledge bank where you can save the best ideas from your books to your own library.
- Memex, a silo bookmarking and annotation platform
- Nototo, a visual note taking application
- Simple Note from Automattic
- Hypothes.is, a platform for highlighting/annotating content online with tags.
- https://tomcritchlow.com/wiki/wikis/, a page with lots of additional tools, examples, and information on wikis, commonplace books, etc.
- Gatsby starter kit for combining Roam Research tooling and Gatsby to create a digital garden: https://github.com/mathieudutour/gatsby-digital-garden
- The first Dutch Obsidian meetup Notes about some common patterns from a Dutch Obsidian meetup which included many IndieWeb practitioners.
- Brianna Privett gave a presentation at WordCampUS 2017 on "The Story of Your Life: Using WordPress as a Memory Warehouse".(slides, video)
- Chris Aldrich presentation "Using WordPress as a Digital Commonplace Book" at #HeyPresstoConf20 consisting of 15 tweets about commonplace books:
- 1512 : Copia: Foundations of the Abundant Style (Latin: De Utraque Verborum ac Rerum Copia)
- A best-seller widely used for teaching how to rewrite pre-existing texts, and how to incorporate them in a new composition. Helped to popularize the use of commonplace books into the Renaissance
- 1706 : A New Method of Making Common-Place-Books
- Describes a popular method for commonplacing and indexing
- 2017-02-24 : How to Take Smart Notes: One Simple Technique to Boost Writing, Learning and Thinking - for Students, Academics and Nonfiction Book Writers
- Book which has helped to popularize the concept of Luhmann's zettelkasten method
- 1945-07 : As We May Think
- 1998 : Hypertext Gardens: Delightful Vistas (archived)
- 1992 : Kommunikation mit Zettelkästen (German)/ Communicating with Slip Boxes (English translation)
- Published in print in Ein Erfahrungsbericht, in: André Kieserling (ed.), Universität als Milieu. Kleine Schriften, Haux, Bielefeld 1992, ISBN 3-925471-13-8, p. 53–61;
- 2003 : Metaphors of the Book as Garden in the English Renaissance
- The Yearbook of English Studies, Vol. 33, Medieval and Early Modern Miscellanies and Anthologies (2003), pp. 248-261 (14 pages); Published By: Modern Humanities Research Association
- Explains that seventeenth-century commentators saw miscellanies as private, idiosyncratic collections and commonplace books as produced with a readership in mind, for reference. Reminiscent of modern blogs and digital gardens?
- 2008-05 : Archival Genres: Gathering Texts and Reading Spaces (archived)
- Invisible Culture: An Electronic Journal for Visual Studies. Issue 12, May 2008. Visual & Cultural Studies Program, University of Rochester.
- This article correlates the commonplace book and the blog as archival genres, transitional collections and spaces where readers interact with texts and straddle public and private spheres.
- 2010-04-22 : The Glass Box And The Commonplace Book (Hearst New Media lecture at Columbia University, subtitled “Two Paths For The Future of Text.”) (archived)
"In its most customary form, “commonplacing,” as it was called, involved transcribing interesting or inspirational passages from one’s reading, assembling a personalized encyclopedia of quotations. It was a kind of solitary version of the original web logs: an archive of interesting tidbits that one encountered during one’s textual browsing."
- 2012-01-23 : 'Commonplace Books': The Tumblrs of an Earlier Era
- 2013-08-28 : How and Why to Keep a Commonplace Book
- 2015-10-08 : What Is A Commonplace Book & Why You Need One
- 2016-04-13 : The Commonplace Book as a Thinker’s Journal
- 2017-07-08 : Bookmarks, favs, likes - backfilling years of gaps (archived)
- 2018-10-10 : Of Digital Streams, Campfires and Gardens: Building personal learning environments across the different time horizons of information consumption (archived)
- 2019-03-04 : Delete Never: The Digital Hoarders Who Collect Tumblrs, Medieval Manuscripts, and Terabytes of Text Files
- 2019-03-09 : How I built my Commonplace Book
- 2020-06-10 : A Brief History & Ethos of the Digital Garden
- 2020-08-29 : A note taking problem and a proposed solution
- 2020-09-03 : Digital gardens let you cultivate your own little bit of the internet: A growing number of people are creating individualized, creative sites that eschew the one-size-fits-all look and feel of social media
- 2020-11-16 : Why do I insist on keeping archives in my note apps? (archived)
- 2021-04-26 : Digital Gardening for Non-Technical Folks (archived)
- 2021-07-03 : Differentiating online variations of the Commonplace Book: Digital Gardens, Wikis, Zettlekasten, Waste Books, Florilegia, and Second Brains (archived)
- 2021-07-09 : How I built my Digital Garden using Hugo
- 2020-06-10 The Study: Issue #32 — Keeping a Commonplace Book
Commonplace Book is NOT: … a journal, … your collection of morning pages., … a stream of consciousness rambling of your thoughts.…
NOT using these apps as your permanent commonplace book repositories though. Apps die and technologies change, but…
…paper is forever
- tl;dr for an online commonplace book (maybe needs curation / deliberation details)
- "I use my blog to save all the bash commands, python code, that I keep looking up over and over again. My latest post: using grep in bash https://maneeshasane.com/programming/2017/11/using-grep.html"—@maneeshasane November 19, 2017
- “For example, I've been blogging for four years, which means I've poured out about a million words' worth of my thoughts online. This regularly produces the surreal and delightful experience of Googling a topic only to unearth an old post that I don't even remember writing.”—Clive Thompson Your Outboard Brain Knows All in Wired 2007-09-25
- “Writing a blog entry about a useful and/or interesting subject forces me to extract the salient features of the link into a two- or three-sentence elevator pitch to my readers, whose decision to follow a link is predicated on my ability to convey its interestingness to them. This exercise fixes the subjects in my head the same way that taking notes at a lecture does, putting them in reliable and easily-accessible mental registers.”—Cory Doctorow, My Blog, My Outboard Brain on 2002-05-31
- “every single thing I post on here—whether it's a link, a blog post, or anything else—is really a “note to self.””— Jeremy Keith in Associative trails
- Informal definition of digital garden in the wild:
- "In many digital gardens (basic def: public personal wiki, densely hyperlinked within itself, looser than a blog), you'll notice that if you hover your mouse over a link, it shows you a preview of the page it links to. BeSci/HCI explain why this is great 👇 https://twitter.com/JoshWComeau/status/1249028653985513472?s=20"—@RobertHaisfield May 8, 2020
- "Nerding hard on digital gardens, personal wikis, and experimental knowledge systems with @_jonesian today.
We have an epic collection going, check these out...
1. @tomcritchlow's Wikifolders: https://tomcritchlow.com/wiki/" —@Mappletons April 15, 2020
- “the distinction between personal blogs and…whatever else it is that we do to try and share ourselves on the internet.”—Lucy Bellwood, Commonplace on 2021-04-25
- “The best personal blogs I've come across feel like a glimpse in to someone's personal notebook, something filled mostly with notes written with the author in mind first and foremost vs notes that have been written with a wider audience in mind.”—@Piper Haywood2021-04-22
- "Too many “Digital Gardens” end up as not much more than a record of someone dicking around with their note-taking workflow for a couple of months."—Jack Baty June 16, 2021
- "With a lovely flower drawn into this illuminated printed leaf from the Floretus cum commento, a twelfth-century florilegium (literally “books of flowers”) attributed to Bernard de Clairvaux [Cologne, 1499], could this make Clairvaux the patron saint of digital gardens?"— Chris Aldrich 2021-06-11
Related sessions at IndieWebCamps
- spaced repetition
- Commonplace book on Wikipedia
- Zettelkasten (German for "card file")
- Memex (Wikipedia entry)
- Indieweb for Education
- Indieweb for Journalism
- use case
- life log
- quantified self
- Kinds of posts
- archival copy
- backlink (or bi-directional link)
- Example in the wild of a WordPress site: https://neilcommonplacebook.wordpress.com/about-2/
- [Thinking about tools for Thought](https://thinkingabouttoolsforthought.com/), a podcast series started on 2021-08-28 about tools in digital garden related spaces.
- Cory Doctorow has a WordPress-based Memex, though most of it is hidden behind a login, some pieces are open to the public, for example: Thomas Piketty’s Capital in the 21st Century
- "Fellow #roamans and users of #obsidian, #logseq, #remnote, #workflowy etc. Do you know some really obscure and unknown #roam-like apps out there? :) E.g., I have found "Note garden" recently. #tftjourney #tft" @CatoMinor3 October 14, 2021
- personal library
- Missing Link: Luhmanns Denkmaschine endlich im Netz An interesting overview (in German) of Niklas Luhmann's zettelkasten and how it was digitally archived with some potential ideas about how this might be done for other such systems or for ideas for those building and designing their own
- Journalist John Dickerson indicates that he uses Instagram as a commonplace: https://www.instagram.com/jfdlibrary/ where he keeps a collection of photo "cards" with quotes from famous people rather than photos. He also keeps collections there of photos of notes from scraps of paper as well as photos of annotations he makes in books.
- Example of a digital garden using Notion with a personal domain https://glenn.thedixons.net/
- Example of a commonplace book/zettelkasten/digital garden: https://barnsworthburning.net/ which prominently features an index on the front page
- Digital gardens should have bugs. https://twitter.com/tomcritchlow/status/1484234289424314371
- "amazing! so glad my code was useful please steal liberally though of course I'm not a great coder so.... bugs included (guess a good garden has bugs?!)" @tomcritchlow January 20, 2022