From IndieWeb
h-feed icon
h-feed icon

h-feed is a microformats2 draft specification with a top level feed object to contain root class(h-*) objects, usually h-entry posts and optionally a common author, name, and representative photo. It is functionally a DRYer replacement for RSS/Atom feed files and thus could supersede them.


How to markup

Mark up

  • your feed container with class="h-feed" (e.g. on the <html> or <body> or within a section or div)
  • if there is a link to the page or alternatively the anchor for the feed container, then add class="u-url" on that hyperlink
    • otherwise if you lack any top level links, you can optionally add a hidden link: <a class="u-url" href="/"></a>
    • if the h-feed is a partial h-feed(for example, no content only name and url), add a link to the full h-feed with class="u-url u-uid"
  • Optionally its name, often a top level <h1> with class="p-name"
  • Optionally, add an h-card inside the h-feed with class="p-author". You can also, alternatively, have h-cards on each individual item in your h-feed, or a top-level h-card outside of the h-feed container.
  • Optionally, and add class="u-photo" on the representative photo of your page (e.g. banner etc.). Consumers may imply/use the u-photo of the p-author h-card you marked up in the previous step
  • Optionally, add rel=prev and rel=next links within your h-feed to provide support for pagination
  • Optionally, if homepage does not contain your primary h-feed, a link to your h-feed from the homepage with rel="alternate" type="text/mf2+html" attributes to aid in discovering the feed or feeds.

Example markup below:

<section class="h-feed">
  <h1 class="p-name"><a href="/feed" class="u-url">My h-feed</a></h1>
  <div class="h-entry">
    <a href="/entry/1" class="u-url p-name">Entry #1</a>
  <div class="h-entry">
    <a href="/entry/2" class="u-url p-name">Entry #2</a>
  <div class="h-entry">
    <a href="/entry/5" class="u-url p-name">Entry #5</a>
  <a href="/next" rel="next">Next</a> — <a href="/previous" rel="prev">Previous</a>
  <a class="p-author h-card" href="/">Jane S. Doe</a>

How to test

Feeds marked up with h-feed should work in the same way as simple lists of h-entries. See How to Test Feeds.

How to consume

See How to Consume Feeds


So indie readers who subscribe to your site can display:

  • a name (and icon) for your site/feed in a list
  • authorship of the feed
  • authorship of each entry in the feed
  • multiple feeds from a page (less common)

Other use cases might include:

  • Generate an Atom feed
    • This seems like a legacy use-case, not sufficient to actually justify h-feed.
  • Feed per channel of content - needs a name
    • "I will have a feed per tag (channel) so I want to name them." - Sandeep Shetty in #indiewebcamp
    • It appears there is some desire to create separate feeds for an indieweb site for separate subsets of content, and name them explicitly accordingly. This presents a need for a container object for the h-entry elements, where the container itself can have a name. This is a potential interesting use-case for an explicit 'h-feed'.
  • An h-feed of h-events that can be subscribed to in a calendar program
  • An h-feed of h-cards that could indicate a blogroll.
  • An h-feed of h-cites could be used for a response feed.

IndieWeb Examples

IndieWeb community members that support h-feed:


Tantek Çelik supports h-feed on his tantek.com home page using an index.html template and Falcon since 2012-07-16, at Sandeep Shetty's encouragement, to help with the indie reader he is building.

As retrieved on 2019-07-23, tantek.com has 3 h-feeds on his home page, which are nested inside his top-level h-card. The first does not have an explicit name and is a full feed of his posts, the second is a minimal feed of his recent articles, and the third is a feed of h-events indicate his speaking and events. The feed does not have pagination links.

Shane Becker

Shane Becker supports h-feed on his veganstraightedge.com home page using for his composite feed of posts and on each post-type specific feed (/notes, /articles, /bookmarks, /videos, /notes) since 2012-11-18 (private repo). He previously supported just hfeed on his feeds since 2010-06-04 (private repo).

As retrieved on 2019-07-23, the h-feed does not have any properties, such as name, but does have pagination links.

Kevin Marks

Kevin Marks has had an h-feed on kevinmarks.com since 2013-12-10 and of course has one on known.kevinmarks.com, like all known sites.

As retrieved on 2019-07-23, the page has an h-feed with an explicit author h-card, name, and summary.

Barnaby Walters

Barnaby Walters supports h-feed on his waterpigs.co.uk home page since 2014-01-21

As retrieved on 2019-07-23, the h-feed has the following properties: name and author h-card.


Jeena supports h-feed for his blog posts(at /posts) and notes(at /notes) on https://jeena.net since 2014-02-25. There are also h-feeds for photos(/photos) and podcasts(/pods).

As retrieved on 2019-07-23, the feeds have the following properties: name, author h-card.

Tom Morris

Tom Morris supports h-feed for posts on tommorris.org since 2014-02-25.

As retrieved on 2019-07-23, the site no longer supports h-feed or mf2 of any kind.


bear supports h-feed for his blog posts at https://bear.im/bearlog since 2014-07-25. Feed discovery is lacking and needs to be added to his home page.

As retrieved on 2019-07-23, the h-feed has a name property only.

Pelle Wessman

Pelle Wessman supports h-feed for his blog posts, archive, bookmarks and interactions at http://voxpelli.com/ since 2014-09-07. For blog posts only partial content with titles only – for bookmarks and interactions full content.

As retrieved on 2019-07-23, the h-feed has the following properties: name, author h-card.

gRegor Morrill

gRegor Morrill supports h-feed for notes at http://gregorlove.com/notes/ since 2014-??-??.

  • Since this feed is not on the homepage, the navigation link to the notes uses rel="feed" for feed discovery.

As retrieved on 2019-07-23, the homepage now has an h-feed with a name and author h-card as properties.

Also has feeds for:

Ben Roberts

Ben Roberts supports h-feed on his site's main page as well as all other post lists including type specific pages (/note, /photo , etc) and monthly archives. Feeds still need next/previous links, these will likely only be on a separate (primary) h-feed off the main page. The main page has had h-feed since March 2014 but was implemented to add h-feed to any post list type page in May 2015.

As retrieved 2019-07-23, the h-feed is nested inside a top-level h-card, has a name property, and the page supports pagination.


Amy Guy has h-feed on homepage and all pages which are a collection of her own posts (eg. rhiaro.co.uk/tag/indieweb, rhiaro.co.uk/travel, rhiaro.co.uk/2015, rhiaro.co.uk/likes) since 2015-02-??.

  • Plans to add rel=feed or something from homepage/side menu to discover different feeds.

As retrieved on 2019-07-23, no longer has an h-feed on any page.

Jonny Barnes

Jonny Barnes supports h-feed for notes at https://jonnybarnes.uk/notes since ?

As retrieved on 2019-07-23, the homepage, notes, etc all have h-feeds, which have an explicit name, however the name is an empty string. The feeds have pagination.

Gokberk Yaltirakli

Gokberk Yaltirakli has an h-feed on his microblog page.

As retrieved 2019-07-23, the h-feed has no properties.

Vincent Pickering

Vincent supports h-feed for his blog posts at https://vincentp.me since 2019-01-01

As retrieved 2019-07-23, the page has an h-feed with the properties of name, summary, and content(assume error as this encompasses the entire pages content). Feed has pagination.

Piper McCorkle

pmc supports h-feed for posts and notes at https://piperswe.me/posts and https://piperswe.me/notes, respectively

Feed has a name property.

Chris McLeod

Chris McLeod supports h-feed on his WordPress blog at https://mrkapowski.com/ by using the Autonomie theme.

The feed has a name and author h-card as properties. It previously had a photo property, but this was removed after running into issues syndicating photo posts.

Jamie Tanna

  Jamie Tanna has supported h-feed on all his feeds (homepage, per content type, for taxonomy items i.e. tags) since 2019-05-12.

The feed has name and URL property.

Implied Examples

Some sites have a collection of top level h-entry (or other) microformats, which are intended to imply an "h-feed" as a set.

Past Examples

Eddie Hinkle

Eddie Hinkle has had an h-feed on eddiehinkle.com's homepage, social page, as well as all of the sub-feed pages linked from social since 2017-03-10.

As retrieved, 2019-07-23, the homepage no longer has an h-feed. despite having a minimal representation of recent posts. The main feed appears to be at /all, has an author h-card property only. Social is no longer a valid link.

Will Norris

Will Norris supports h-feed on his willnorris.com home page since mid-2013 using WordPress and a modified version of wordpress-uf2 (modifications to be sent upstream at soonish?)

As retrieved on 2019-07-23, the page is no longer running WordPress and no longer has an h-feed on the page.

Consumers of H-Feed

This section covers consumers of h-feed. At the moment, this is primarily feed readers.





recommended practices

David Shanske reviewed community h-feed usage and noted that out of the ones listed on this page, the majority had a name property. many, but not all had an author property. A small number had a summary property or pagination. None of the ones surveyed had a photo property.

Feeds other than h-entry

While the definition of feed has traditionally been a number of h-entrys, other h-* objects have been used in feeds.

An h-feed of h-events has been used for an upcoming events list. An h-feed of h-cards has represented a followers list.

multiple h-feeds in the same page

  1. The first h-feed you find on the page (document order) is the h-feed of the page
  2. Any additional h-feeds may be ignored by anyone processing the h-feed of the page
  3. If the publisher wants secondary h-feeds to be referenceable , they must put unique ID attributes on them
  4. Thus if consuming code wants to reference a secondary h-feed on a page it must do so with a url with the fragment ID of that secondary h-feed

partial feeds

Partial (e.g. truncated) vs full h-feeds.

A lot of blogs have feeds with partial content, where the entries only have post names/titles, permalinks, and sometimes summaries but not full post content. This could be done for UX reasons where the reader is not subjected to a full long post but a quick list of shorter summaries.

If you do have a partial feed (e.g. on your home page), it is good (for indie reader consumption) to also have a separate full feed page.

The partial feed can use a u-uid u-url to link to the full feed page which could be discovered by a canonical h-feed discovery algorithm.

    <div class="h-feed" id="partial_feed">
        <h1 class="p-name">
         <a class="u-url" href="#partial_feed">Partial Feed</a></h1>
        <a class="u-uid u-url" href="/feed.html">Full Feed</a>
            <li class="h-entry"><a href="permalink1">Article1 name</a></li>
            <li class="h-entry"><a href="permalink2">Article2 name</a></li>

design freedom

The possibility of separate partial vs full feeds provides more design freedom for content publishers, since they can choose to have a full or partial (or no!) feed on their homepage and thus design accordingly.

acegiak: KartikPrabhu: my wife's site (which I'm helping her add microformats etc to) is a potential test for this because she's an artist and wants her landing page to be quite specific in appearance.

from: https://chat.indieweb.org/2014-03-27/1395970560000

canonical feed autodiscovery

The assumption of a "canonical" feed may be the wrong framing.

Better to consider sites that share multiple feeds of information on their home page, and may have a "primary" feed among them. See "feed autodiscovery" for more.

feed autodiscovery

prior work

Feed readers discover the links to legacy RSS/Atom feed files automatically from HTML pages by parsing for links with rel="alternate" and type="application/rss+xml" or type="application/atom+xml" respectively.

When such links use the <link> tag in the <head> of the page, this provides the potential for a nice UX where the user does not need to know about the 'plumbing' of feeds / feed files.

Example from adactio.com in Feedly

autodiscovery feed example from adactio.com

How can (possibly multiple) h-feed feeds be discovered similarly?

rel alternate type mf2 html

Link to h-feed marked-up html pages from the home page using rel="alternate" with type="text/mf2+html" and an optional title="Feed Title". See also rel-feed.

See: https://microformats.org/wiki/h-feed#Discovery for how to discover and consume.

Some related work:

  1. https://tools.ietf.org/html/draft-ietf-atompub-autodiscovery-01
  2. https://blog.whatwg.org/feed-autodiscovery

url uid

Alternatively, if an h-feed has a u-url u-uid property that is not the URL of the current page itself, then that u-url u-uid URL can be treated as the canonical full feed.

Zegnat proposal 2018

Martijn van der Ven proposed an algorithm for this here:

  • Can I subscribe to tantek.com?
  • What is tantek.com? tantek.com is Tantek Çelik (h-card)
  • Is tantek.com a feed? No.
  • Does tantek.com advertise a rel-feed URL? No.
  • Does the main object on tantek.com (h-card) contain a feed? Yes!
  • Are there multiple feeds? Yes
    • Identify feeds using a uid if found, if not, a ID that can be used as a fragment
      • Return multiple feeds for the user to decide whcih to subscribe to
      • assume main feed.

Tantek example

On my tantek.com homepage, I have three h-feed elements

  • unnamed
  • Recent Articles
  • Speaking & Events

I realized that this pattern makes sense from the perspective that the main/primary feed doesn't need a separate name, or a superfluous explicit name like "Main", thus an h-feed consumer could:

  • treat the first unnamed h-feed as the primary h-feed of the page, and
  • lacking one, perhaps just treat the first h-feed as the primary h-feed.



WordPress classic hfeed

A large percentage of WordPress themes (how many? since when? #/% users?) use the classic hAtom hfeed class on every page, as opposed to only on pages with multiple hentry entries. Due to the popularity of WordPress, this is present on a large number of websites.

WordPress theme support

  • Aaron Parecki As of 2018-08, the state of WordPress theme support of Microformats is spotty:
    • aaronpk: I even subscribe to wordpress Atom feeds over microformats feeds when I follow people in my reader because the mf2 is always so inconsistent source
    • However, when done properly, the Microformats feeds provide much richer data than other feed formats since they can convey a variety of post types, responses with rich reply-context (e.g. with h-cite), etc.
      • need URL example(s) of richer h-feed in a WordPress Theme, more post types, reply-contexts, etc.

See Also