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federation in the context of the indieweb refers to services and features on indieweb sites that work directly with other indieweb sites peer-to-peer, without being bottlenecked by any kind of centralized service or silo.

Related terms:

  • decentralization / decentralized
  • distribution / distributed



You should support federation on your site so you can:

  • Use your site to mention people on other sites and respond to their posts
  • Show mentions and responses from other sites to your posts, on your site
  • Allow other sites to subscribe to (follow) your site, preferably in realtime
  • Subscribe to (follow) other sites from your site

How to

To support federation on the indieweb, support the following:

How to federate posts and responses

You (and your site) get federation benefits from implementing each of these smaller steps, so see the following for the specific how to instructions:

  1. h-entry markup on your posts
  2. Webmention sending
  3. Webmention receiving
  4. h-entry consuming

How to federate mentions

Federating mentions is a special somewhat simpler case of federating posts, except using home page URLs rather than post permalins:

  1. To notify others when you mention them
  2. To receive notifications when others mention you

How to federate following

There are incremental following federation benefits to each of these smaller steps, and thus you should implement them as described:

  1. h-feed markup on your primary (composite) stream of updates (like on your homepage), and other streams
    • Allows people to find all the posts on your home page or other stream pages
    • Implement: How to publish h-feed
  2. Publish notifications with WebSub
    • Enables realtime notifications to subscribers when you make a new post
    • Implement: How to publish WebSub
  3. Follow and subscribe via WebSub
  4. h-feed consuming


DNS Exception

DNS Exception: In the context of the indieweb, and the web in general, the centralized/hierarchicial architecture of DNS is accepted as an exception to the abovementioned federation requirement of no centralized bottlenecks. That being said, there are ongoing efforts to figure out how to replace DNS with a peer-to-peer system.

Indieweb Focus

Focus: for day-to-day practical purposes, the indieweb community is not working on addressing the DNS centralization issue/exception and is instead focusing on design (UI/UX) of how user-level features can and should federate.

Protocols and formats

A protocol or format can be said to support federation if it can be supported by multiple sites+ with multiple implementations++, to interact directly with each other without the use of any third party sites, or centralized bottlenecks.

  • +multiple sites because one site only is a silo
  • ++multiple implementations* because one implementation only is a monoculture, based on (evolving) code, not a dependable protocol or format (when in conflict, the single codebase wins over any spec).



There have been many attempts and limited deployments of various social web federated systems using various protocols and formats.

This section is a stub and could

Pingback and h-entry

In the IndieWeb in particular, the first federated comment thread was built using:


This first indieweb federation test demonstrated:

  • federated mentions in the original post to others's indieweb homepages
  • federated comments from the people mentioned and others's sites

Webmention itself had barely been started on a github repo and wiki page, these are the latest versions as of 2013-04-19:


Main article: OStatus

(stub section)

Does anyone have any (Internet Archive) links to the first federated OStatus posts and a cross-site thread? Presumably from circa 2010 (or earlier?)


Articles about federation and federated social networks.

See Also

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